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    Message A

    This is the most effective of the five messages we tested in 2020. It reminds voters that voting is a social norm and is widely considered the most effective way to increase turnout:


    “Thank you for being a [previous/first time]* voter! Who you vote for is private, but whether you vote is public record. Please vote in the Tues. Nov 8 election!” (*Indicated on instructions)

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